Association Between Soil Lead and Blood Lead - Evidence


Mark A. S. Laidlaw
E-mail
Publications


Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century. Clair C. Patterson, National Academy of Sciences (1980)


Source - Laidlaw and Filippelli (2008)



Historical Emissions of Lead from Leaded Gasoline - Top 90 U.S. Cities

Source - Mielke, Laidlaw and Gonzales (2010)



An example of the lead poisoning epidemic - Detroit, Michigan


View Lead Poisoning Percentages in Each Detroit School


Plot of Soil Lead Versus Children's Blood Lead in Detroit - Bickell 2010

Source - Bickell (2010)


Eclampsia is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is a condition that causes a pregnant woman, usually previously diagnosed with preeclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine), to develop seizures or coma.

Childhood lead poisoning (Zahran et al., 2013a), (Zahran et al., 2013b) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (Zahran et al., 2014) have been shown to be associated with lead in soil and dust.


1) Childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States today (CDC, 2014); Source
2) “Preeclampsia ... is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide and a major cause of preterm delivery”.... "Predicting preeclampsia is a major step towards saving the lives of many women”.Source


Link to several studies suggesting a link between lead and eclampsia


Funding should be therefore be directed towards understanding and preventing children’s and child bearing women’s exposure to lead in soil and dust.
Plot of Temporal Variation in Atmospheric Soil and Lead in Detroit - 2001-2009

Scatterplot with median splines of weather adjusted air lead and air soil in time (daily). Weather-adjusted air Pb and soil estimates (µg/m3) are graphed on the daily time-step, fitting distributions of air Pb and soil values with median splines.

Source - Zahran S., Laidlaw M.A.S., McElmurry S.P., Filippelli G.M. Taylor M. (2013)

Supplemental Material


Plot of Temporal Variation in Atmospheric Lead and Children's Blood Lead in Detroit - 2001-2009

Weather-adjusted air Pb (µg/m3) and blood Pb (µg/dL) by age group. Average monthly child blood Pb levels adjusted by local weather conditions, child gender, method of blood draw, and census tract fixed effects

Source - Zahran S., Laidlaw M.A.S., McElmurry S.P., Filippelli G.M. Taylor M. (2013)

Supplemental Material


Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement:Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010 (Zhang et al, 2013)


New Orleans, Louisiana (USA)

mielke.jpg

Source - Howard Mielke - Xavier (New Orleans)

no3d.jpg


New Orleans Soil Pb Blood Pb Dose Response - Most Recent

Link to Source




Syracuse, New York

syracuse.jpg

Link to Source



Link to Source

Indianapolis, Indiana (USA)

Points represent blood lead poisoning cases (>10 ug/dl) between 1992 and 1994

Based upon a sample of only 8% of children

Link to Source




Chicago, Illinois

syracuse.jpg

Link to Source (dead link) Penn State Graduate Student Study



Link to separate United States Geological Survey (USGS)Soil Lead Study of Chicago

chicago.jpg

Distribution of soil lead in 87 Chicago Gardens - Finster et al. (2003)

Pilot Study of the Relationship of Regional Road Traffic to Surface-Soil Lead Levels in Illinois (Argonne National Laboratory, 1987)

Gasoline Pb in soil of Chicago Play Areas (Argonne National Laboratory, 1986)

syracuse.jpg

Chicago Blood Lead Seasonality - 1967 and 1968.

source


Link to Philadelphia, Pennslyvania - Soil Lead Map

Philadelphia, Pennslyvania : Lead Poisoning Risk Analysis

Link to Source




Oakland, California

syracuse.jpg


Los Angeles, California

syracuse.jpg


Link to paper

Link to California Soil Lead Studies


Sacramento, California

sacramento.jpg


Link to Solt Thesis

Link to California Soil Lead Studies


California Automotive Pb Emissions: 1950 to 1982

Link to Source

Link to California Soil Lead Studies



Minneapolis and St. Paul Minnesota(USA)

TwinCities


El Paso, Texas

Link to Source

Source - SCERP Monograph Series no. 12, The U.S-Mexican Border Environment: Integrated Approach to Defining Particulate Matter Issues in the Paso del Norte Region.

Link to CDC El Paso Discussion of Study




Paris, France

Link to Source




Great Britain

The British Geological survey systematically sampled Pb in the soils of 22 cities in Great Britain - Link.

Moscow, Russia

Link to Source


Prague, Czech Republic

Link to Source


Europe

Link to Source



London, England

Link to Source


Glasgow, Scotland

Link to Source


Sydney, Australia

Link to Source


Link to Source


Link to Source


Omaha, Nebraska

Link to Source



Berlin, Germany - Soil Lead Map

Karlsruhe, Germany - Soil Lead Map



Peer Reviewed Evidence That Exterior Soil Is The Primary Source of Interior Lead Loading and Lead Concentration in House Dust

2014 French Study

2014 Sydney Australia Study


Typical Pattern of Roadside Lead in Soil Found In Urban Cities

syracuse.jpg

Robin Raftis of IUPUI actually completed the work for this transect.
Source(Filippelli et al., 2005)- 3.5mb

Urban Soil Lead Comes from Two Main Sources


1. Emissions from Past Use of Lead in Gasoline
2. Exterior Lead Paint


(note - lead smelters can be main sources when present as well)

schematic.jpg


Schematic of Typical Pattern of Urban Soil Lead Concentration

Link to Source





Discussion of Association between Soil Lead and Blood Lead



The Emerging Paradigm About The Cause of Urban Lead Poisoning


The emerging lead poisoning paradigm is that chronic urban lead poisoning is caused by exposure to lead contaminated soil (contaminated from past leaded gasoline emissions and exterior lead paint) that is tracked into the interior of homes by shoes(Hunt et al., 2006)and the feet and fur of family pets and exterior urban soil that is re-suspended into the atmosphere where it penetrates interiors of homes and settles on interior contact surfaces(Layton and Beame, 2009)(Laidlaw and Filippelli, 2008). Children are also exposed to lead via direct ingestion of soil outdoors. Chronic urban lead poisoning can also be caused by exposure to lead paint particles. Sometimes, children are exposed to lead originating from BOTH lead paint particles AND from exterior lead contaminated soil dust. Children are primarily exposed via hand to mouth activity (thumb sucking). Acute lead poisoning is probably caused by ingestion of interior and exterior lead paint that has chipped or via ingestion of a large dose of soil with high lead concentrations.


See also, Filippelli and Laidlaw, 2010







Pathways of Pb Exposure - USEPA, November, 2008



Source - USEPA Staff, 2008

Boston - Bivariate correlations among environmental measures and childs blood lead


Source - Rabinowitz et al

Migration Pathways of Contaminated Soil and Airborne Particulates to Indoor Dust



Source - Layton and Beamer

A Large Portion of House Dust Is Composed of Soil

Investigator % House Dust From Soil
Hawley (1985)
80
Thornton et al. (1985)
20
Camann and Harding (1989)
50
Fergusson and Kim (1991)
30-50
Calabrese and Stanek (1992)
20-78

Source - Estimates of the relative contribution of exterior soil to house dust (Paustenbach et al, 1997).



Based upon the table above, it should be easily understood that if the exterior soils are contaminated with Pb, the interior house dust will be contaminated with Pb as well.


http://www.ricocolorado.org/gov/lead/FINAL_Rico_Blood_Lead_Report_Feb-13-2007.pdf


Synchrotron Analysis Studies Supports Hypothesis That Pb in Outdoor Soil Is Significant Contributor to INDOOR dust Pb


Laidlaw et al. Sydney House and Soil XAS Study

Pingitore et al. 2011 - Contributions of Paint and Soil to Pb in Household Dust Wipes: An XAS Study

Maclean et al. 2011 - Application of Synchrotron X-ray Techniques for the Determination of Metal Speciation in (House) Dust Particles


Blood Lead Incidence Maps



The blood lead incidence rates in most large urban areas of the United States are probably similar to those shown on the blood lead incidence maps of Detroit, Milwaukee, and Cleveland (below).

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Milwaukee Soil Lead Study

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2009 Milwaukee Blood Lead Seasonality Study

Older Milwaukee Blood Lead Seasonality Study

Milwaukee Soil Lead Study





Source

Cleveland, Ohio- Soil Lead




Detroit, Michigan

Note the soil lead background concentrations in Detroit's northern suburbs.

Link to Source of Figures 4 and 5



Plot of Soil Lead Versus Children's Blood Lead in Detroit - Bickell 2010

View Lead Poisoning Percentages in Each Detroit School

Source - Detroit Free Press


Providence, Rhode Island

Link to Source


Grand Rapids, Michigan

Source


Louisville, Kentucky

Source


The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1999-2002 database indicates that approximately 2.4 million children have blood Pb levels between 5 and 9.9 microgram/deciliter (Iqbal et al., 2008) and that within that population of 1-'5-year olds with blood Pb levels of 5 microgram/deciliter or higher, the prevalence was 47% for non-Hispanic Black children, 28% for Mexican American children, and 19% for non-Hispanic White children (Bernard, 2003). The fact that children of color are nearly 4 times more likely than white children to have blood Pb levels between 5 and 10 microgram/deciliter (and 13 times more likely to have blood Pb levels above 20 microgram/deciliter; Bernard and McGeehin, 2003) raises concerns about social justice and the long-term health of these children.


New Orleans Soil Pb Blood Pb Dose Response - Most Recent

Link to Source



Dose-Response- Syracuse, New York (USA)


Dose-Response- New Orleans, Louisiana (USA)


<

Link to Source



Link to Source



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Dose-Response- New Orleans, Louisiana (USA)


Zahran S, et al. Children's blood lead and standardized test performance response as indicators of neurotoxicity in metropolitan New Orleans elementary schools, Neurotoxicology (2009), doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.07.017




Dose-Response- Tijuana (Mexico)


Source




Dose-Response - Detroit


Plot of Soil Lead Versus Children's Blood Lead in Detroit - Bickell 2010

Source - Bickell (2010)

Dose-Response- USEPA IEUBK Model



Other Dose Response Information


  • Lanphear et al. (1998): increasing soil lead concentration from background to 400 micrograms/g was estimated to produce an increase of 11.6% in the percentage of children estimated to have a blood lead level exceeding 10 micrograms/dL.

  • Malcoe et al. (2002): Logistic regression of yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL.

  • Texas Dept. of Health (2004): Using large database from El Paso Area, study found an odds ratio 4.5 (1.4, 14.2)for the relationship between a 500 ppm increase in soil lead and blood lead level > 10 ug/dl.

  • Maisonette (1997): yard soil remediation showed the strongest association with changes in blood lead levels. This variable was found to be a protective factor for elevated blood lead levels in children (odds ratio, 0.28; confidence interval, 0.08-0.92).


2011 Lead Poisoning Health Effects Review Paper - Highly Recommended!



Lead in Soil Is Associated With Eclampsia (Zahran et al., 2014)

Eclampsia Definition: Eclampsia, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is a condition that causes a pregnant woman, usually previously diagnosed with preeclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine), to develop seizures or coma.

Source - Sammy Zahran, Sheryl Magzamen, Ian M.Breunig, Howard W.Mielke (2014)

S2014 Study Showing Relationship Between Mothers Blood Lead Concentration and Eclampsia

"Preeclampsia ... is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide and a major cause of preterm delivery," Dr. Sibai said. "Predicting preeclampsia is a major step towards saving the lives of many women."

Source

Link to several studies suggesting a link between lead and eclampsia


2012 Association Between Aggravated Assault and Air Pb - Six City Study - Highly Recommended!





Toxicity Below 10 ug/dl - Cognitive


Canfield, R.L., Henderson, C.R., Cory-Slechta, D.A., Cox, C., Jusko, T.A., & Lanphear, B.P. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 g/dL: The Rochester cohort study. The New England Journal of Medicine 348(16):1517-1526.

Chiodo LM, Covington C, Sokol RJ, Hannigan JH, Jannise J, Ager J, Greenwald M, Delaney-Black V. 2007. Blood lead levels and specific attention effects in young children. Neurotoxicol Teratol.

Schnaas L, Rothenberg SJ, Flores MF, Martinez S, Hernandez C, Osorio E, Velasco SR, Perroni E. Reduced intellectual development in children with prenatal lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 May;114(5):791-7.

Surkan PJ, Zhang A, Trachtenberg F, Daniel DB, McKinlay S, Bellinger DC. Neurotoxicology. Neuropsychological function in children with blood lead levels <10mug/dL. 2007 Jul 25.

Miranda ML, Kim D, Galeano MA, Paul CJ, Hull AP, Morgan SP. 2007. The relationship between early childhood blood lead levels and performance on end-of-grade tests. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Aug;115(8):1242-7.

Zahran S, et al. Children's blood lead and standardized test performance response as indicators of neurotoxicity in metropolitan New Orleans elementary schools, Neurotoxicology (2009), doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.07.017

Chandramouli, L. et al. 2009. Effects of early childhood lead exposure on academic performance and behaviour of school age children. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Online First: 21 September 2009. doi:10.1136/adc.2008.149955

2009_Miranda_Environmental_contributors_to_the_achievement_gap

Accompanying powerpoint pdf

Nigg JT, Nikolas M, Mark Knottnerus G, Cavanagh K, Friderici K. 2010. Confirmation and extension of association of blood lead with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptom domains at population-typical exposure levels. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 51(1):58-65.

Lucchini, RG, S Zoni, S Guazzetti, E Bontempi, S Micheletti, K Broberg, G Parrinello and DR Smith. 2012. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents. Environmental Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2012.08.003.

Toxicity Below 10 ug/dl - Mortality


Menke A, Muntner P, Batuman V, Silbergeld EK, Guallar E. Bloodlead below 0.48 mmol/L (10 mg/dL) and mortality among US adults. Circulation 2006;114:1388-94.


Detroit Blood Lead and School Outcomes


Source



Children's Blood Lead Levels Also Display Strong Seasonal Variations With Peaks Generally in the Summer or Autumn When Soils Are Dry and Prone to Resuspension



A conceptual model of child BPb seasonal Pb poisoning is suggested. Lead from multiple sources has accumulated in soils of urban environments. The seasonal resuspension of Pb-contaminated soil in urban atmospheres appears to be controlled by soil moisture and climate fluctuations. This study (Laidlaw et al