Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older
urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less
uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead
residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century.
Clair C. Patterson, National Academy of Sciences (1980)
Eclampsia is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is a condition that causes a pregnant woman, usually
previously diagnosed with preeclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine), to develop seizures or coma.
1) Childhood lead poisoning is one of the most common pediatric health problems in the United States today (CDC, 2014); Source
2) “Preeclampsia ... is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide and a major cause of preterm delivery”.... "Predicting preeclampsia is a major step towards saving the lives of many women”.Source
Funding should be therefore be directed towards understanding and preventing children’s and child bearing women’s exposure to lead in soil and dust.
Plot of Temporal Variation in Atmospheric Soil and Lead in Detroit - 2001-2009
Scatterplot with median splines of weather adjusted air lead and air soil in time (daily). Weather-adjusted air Pb and soil estimates (µg/m3) are graphed on the daily time-step, fitting distributions of air Pb and soil values with median splines.
Plot of Temporal Variation in Atmospheric Lead and Children's Blood Lead in Detroit - 2001-2009
Weather-adjusted air Pb (µg/m3) and blood Pb (µg/dL) by age group. Average monthly child blood Pb levels adjusted by local weather conditions, child gender, method of blood draw, and census tract fixed effects
The Emerging Paradigm About The Cause of Urban Lead Poisoning
The emerging lead poisoning paradigm is that chronic urban lead poisoning is caused by exposure to lead contaminated soil (contaminated from past leaded gasoline emissions and exterior lead paint) that is tracked into the interior of homes by shoes(Hunt et al., 2006)and the feet and fur of family pets and exterior urban soil that is re-suspended into the atmosphere where it penetrates interiors of homes and settles on interior contact surfaces(Layton and Beame, 2009)(Laidlaw and Filippelli, 2008). Children are also exposed to lead via direct ingestion of soil outdoors. Chronic urban lead poisoning can also be caused by exposure to lead paint particles. Sometimes, children are exposed to lead originating from BOTH lead paint particles AND from exterior lead contaminated soil dust. Children are primarily exposed via hand to mouth activity (thumb sucking). Acute lead poisoning is probably caused by ingestion of interior and exterior lead paint that has chipped or via ingestion of a large dose of soil with high lead concentrations.
The National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1999-2002
database indicates that approximately 2.4 million children
have blood Pb levels between 5 and 9.9 microgram/deciliter (Iqbal et al.,
2008) and that within that population of 1-'5-year olds
with blood Pb levels of 5 microgram/deciliter or higher, the prevalence
was 47% for non-Hispanic Black children, 28% for Mexican
American children, and 19% for non-Hispanic White children
(Bernard, 2003). The fact that children of color are
nearly 4 times more likely than white children to have
blood Pb levels between 5 and 10 microgram/deciliter (and 13 times
more likely to have blood Pb levels above 20 microgram/deciliter; Bernard
and McGeehin, 2003) raises concerns about social justice
and the long-term health of these children.
New Orleans Soil Pb Blood Pb Dose Response - Most Recent
Lanphear et al. (1998): increasing soil lead concentration from background to 400 micrograms/g was estimated to produce an increase of 11.6% in the percentage of children estimated to have a blood lead level exceeding 10 micrograms/dL.
Malcoe et al. (2002): Logistic regression of yard soil lead >165.3 mg/kg (OR, 4.1; CI, 1.3-12.4) were independently associated with BPbs greater than or equal to 10 microg/dL.
Texas Dept. of Health (2004): Using large database from El Paso Area, study found an odds ratio 4.5 (1.4, 14.2)for the relationship between a 500 ppm increase in soil lead and blood lead level > 10 ug/dl.
Maisonette (1997): yard soil remediation showed the strongest association with changes in blood lead levels. This variable was found to be a protective factor for elevated blood lead levels in children (odds ratio, 0.28; confidence interval, 0.08-0.92).
Eclampsia Definition: Eclampsia, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is a condition that causes a pregnant woman, usually previously diagnosed with preeclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine), to develop seizures or coma.
"Preeclampsia ... is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide and a major cause of preterm delivery," Dr. Sibai said. "Predicting preeclampsia is a major step towards saving the lives of many women."
Lucchini, RG, S Zoni, S Guazzetti, E Bontempi, S Micheletti, K Broberg, G Parrinello and DR Smith. 2012. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents. Environmental Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2012.08.003.
Children's Blood Lead Levels Also Display Strong Seasonal
Variations With Peaks Generally in the Summer or Autumn When Soils Are
Dry and Prone to Resuspension
A conceptual model of child BPb seasonal Pb poisoning is suggested.
Lead from multiple sources has accumulated in soils of urban
environments. The seasonal resuspension of Pb-contaminated soil in
urban atmospheres appears to be controlled by soil moisture and climate
fluctuations. This study
(Laidlaw et al